The backhoe loader is a road construction machine with a wide range of functions. These machines are characterized by the fact that they are equipped with two attachments at once: the blade (front) and the shovel (rear).
Applications for backhoe loaders
The tasks for which the backhoe loader is used are very diverse:
- construction works of varying complexity and purpose;
- Road surface repair and construction;
- Laying of underground utilities;
- Loading and unloading of various bulk materials;
- leveling and grading of the terrain;
- removal of tree roots;
- Dismantling of buildings and structures.
The special machines are used in construction, agriculture, utilities and other areas. This is achieved due to the possibility of equipping the machine with additional attachments.
The backhoe loaders have a power range between 45 and 82 kW. However, the payload of the machine depends not only on this parameter, but also on a number of other factors, such as the parameters of the hydraulic system, the characteristics of the chassis and weight.
Depending on the weight, the machines are divided into the following types:
- Lightweight (up to 4 tons). These are used in tight spaces where good maneuverability and compactness are important.
- Medium (4 to 10 tons). Such special machines are mainly used on construction sites.
- Heavy duty backhoe loader (over 10 tons). They are used in quarries, on construction sites and for large excavation work.
There are two types of chassis for backhoe loaders:
Wheel chassis: This chassis makes you mobile. It can transport itself to the place of work independently.
Crawler chassis: It gives the machine a high degree of off-road capability and the ability to transport particularly heavy loads. However, such models can only be transported to the construction site on special loading platforms.
Backhoe loader controls and implements
The mini excavators have two types of controls: lever and joystick. The first type is considered traditional, but it has disadvantages. In order to operate the lever controls, the driver has to make a lot of movements and strain his back. Productivity is affected by working on the special machines for a long time.
The joystick allows the driver to perform many movements with one hand without straining his body. This means that the driver of this machine does not tire over long periods of time and can carry out his tasks more precisely.
Backhoe loaders equipped with a blade shield are particularly common. It can move large amounts of rock or earth and is capable of transporting large single loads.
The following characteristics are taken into account when choosing shields:
- width and height;
- Ability to lift, tilt and swivel.
At the back of the backhoe there is a boom with a shovel, which consists of 2-3 parts. Some models are also equipped with a telescopic arm to increase the digging depth and radius.
When choosing a shovel, the following characteristics are taken into account:
- type of shovel;
- load weight that the bucket can bear;
- radius of the working area;
- Depth level.
The backhoe loaders are also available with optional equipment: for example hydraulic hammers, loading forks, grapples, equipment for handling long or fibrous loads.